Can the Public Make a Citizen’s Arrest in Singapore?
On your way home from work, you notice a robbery taking place. An old lady is being held at knifepoint and she is about to surrender her valuables. Sizing up the situation, you notice that the robber is a slightly built man of about 1.67m while you, standing at nearly 1.9m, with 20 years of Aikido training under your belt, can certainly overpower him, knife or no knife.
Can you, as a civilian, arrest the robber before he does any harm to the old lady?
This article will discuss:
- What is a citizen’s arrest?
- When can you make a citizen’s arrest?
- What happens if the alleged offender is harmed or dies while the citizen’s arrest is being made?
- What happens after you have made a citizen’s arrest?
What is a Citizen’s Arrest?
In limited situations, Singapore law allows private individuals who are not police officers to arrest a person who is believed to have committed an offence. This is known as an “arrest by a private person”, or sometimes referred to as a “citizen’s arrest” or “civilian’s arrest”.
When Can You Make a Citizen’s Arrest?
Under section 66(1) of the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC), 2 conditions must be satisfied before a private individual is permitted by law to arrest a person who commits an offence:
- The offence must have been committed in the view or presence of the private individual making the arrest; and
- The offence which has been committed must be an arrestable and non-bailable offence. Arrestable and non-bailable offences refer to offences for which police officers are legally empowered to make an arrest without a warrant, and for which the court has the discretion to decide whether to grant bail.
Examples of such offences, which are also set out in the First Schedule of the CPC, include robbery, theft, voluntarily causing grievous hurt by dangerous weapons or means, kidnapping, and rape.
You may also wish to refer to our articles that explain arrestable offences and non-bailable offences in further detail.
In practice though, it is unlikely that a layperson (who is not trained in the law) will be thinking about the differences between arrestable and non-arrestable offences, or bailable and non-bailable offences, if he or she sees a crime being committed and decides to intervene.
In such circumstances, a layperson is most likely to act based on whether they think that the action or conduct they are witnessing is illegal.
Other situations where a citizen’s arrest can be made
Where a person commits an offence against the private person or the private person’s property
Section 66(6) of the CPC also provides that a private person can arrest a person who commits an offence against the private person, or the private person’s property, if at least one of the following conditions are met:
- The name and residential address of the person is not known;
- The person gives a residential address that is outside of Singapore; or
- There is reason to believe that the name or residential address given by the person is false.
In this situation, there is no requirement that such offence be an arrestable, non-bailable offence before the private person can arrest the person.
You may also wish to remind the person whom you have arrested that he will be found guilty of an offence if he forcibly resists the arrest or assaults you.
Where the person has been issued a warrant of arrest or has run away/is in hiding
Do note that a private person may also arrest any person against whom a warrant of arrest has been issued, but the person has run away or is in hiding such that the warrant of arrest cannot be executed against him or her.
What Happens If the Alleged Offender is Harmed or Dies While the Citizen’s Arrest is Being Made?
When making the arrest, it is important to ensure that you do not use excessive force on the person, and that you detain the person only until the police arrives.
If the alleged offender is harmed or dies in the process of being arrested, there may be potential legal consequences. In such cases, an autopsy would usually be conducted to determine the cause of death, and a coroner’s inquiry could be held if the cause of death remains unclear.
Depending on the findings of the State Coroner, the Attorney-General’s Chambers (AGC) may decide if it wants to prosecute the persons who made the arrest. This may be done if there is evidence to suggest that their actions are related to the alleged offender’s death.
The AGC will also need to consider the intentions of the individuals who made the arrest to determine if they should be charged. For example, whether they intended to harm the alleged offender, or if their intention was to merely restrain the alleged offender, which negligently resulted in the alleged offender’s death.
In November 2019, a 46-year-old man died after he was detained by 5 members of the public for allegedly taking upskirt videos of a woman at Little India MRT station. According to news reports, the man had been pinned down by the members of the public, who released their grip on the alleged offender after he started vomiting and fell unconscious.
An autopsy later revealed that the man was found to have died from hypothyroid cardiomyopathy and no excessive force (which was initially thought to be the cause of death) was used to detain him.
However, the State Coroner noted in her findings that the members of the public made no attempt to reposition or actively monitor whether the man was well after he had vomited. The stress of being on the run and/or the subsequent restraint could have also contributed to the man’s death.
While no excessive force was used in this case, it was clear that the members of the public were not aware of the medical risks associated with restraining methods. This case also prompted lawyers to remind members of the public that while they can make a citizen’s arrest if they see a crime being committed, they must not break any laws in the process, for example, by causing hurt to the alleged offender.
What Happens After You have Made a Citizen’s Arrest?
When you have made the arrest, you must, as soon as possible and without any unnecessary delay, hand over the arrested person to a police officer or take the arrested person to a police station.
After the arrested person has been handed over to the custody of a policy officer, there are a number of situations that could happen next:
Release of the alleged offender if no offence has been committed
If there is no reason to believe that the person whom you have arrested has committed any offence, he or she will be immediately released from custody.
In such a situation however, you could face criminal charges for making a wrongful arrest. You could also face a civil lawsuit from the person whom you had arrested.
Re-arrest by a police officer if that person has committed an arrestable offence, is subject to police supervision or is known to be a habitual robber, housebreaker or thief
The person whom you have arrested must be re-arrested by a police officer if he or she is a person whom a police officer may arrest without a warrant.
Such persons could include a person who may have committed an arrestable offence, is subject to police supervision, or who is known to be a habitual robber, housebreaker or thief.
Re-arrest by a police officer if non-arrestable offence is committed and person refused to give his/her name and residential address
The person may be re-arrested by the police if there is reason to believe that the person whom you have arrested has committed a non-arrestable offence, and he or she either:
- Refuses to give his/her name and residential address when required by a police officer;
- Gives a residential address outside Singapore; or
- Gives a name or residential address that the police officer has reason to believe is false.
That person may also be released upon signing a bond to appear before a Magistrate.
If the person refuses or is unable to sign the bond as required, he or she will be brought before a Magistrate’s Court and may either be ordered to be detained in police custody until he/she can either be tried in court, or released upon signing a bond.
There may be situations where a member of the public might want to intervene to protect someone’s safety if they believe a crime is being committed.
However, members of the public who conduct citizen’s arrests may not understand the relevant laws or the potentially adverse consequences of making such an arrest, which have been outlined above.
Making a citizen’s arrest can often be an unpredictable, and sometimes high-risk, situation, where the person making the arrest as well as the alleged offender, and even other members of the public could be placed in a potentially dangerous situation.
Therefore, the best option if you are in doubt as to whether you can legally make a citizen’s arrest might be to call the police, given the potential risks involved.
- Your Right to a Lawyer After Being Arrested in Singapore
- What to Do If Your Loved One is Under Police Investigation
- How to Write a Letter of Representation to AGC in Singapore
- What is Entrapment and is It Legal in Singapore?
- What Happens When You Voluntarily Surrender to the Police
- Juvenile Crime: What If Your Child is Arrested in Singapore?
- Tasers, Batons, Shields & Firearms: When Do the Police Use Them?
- Stopped by the Singapore Police For Spot Checks, Etc: What to Do
- Police Investigation Process for Crimes in Singapore (4 Steps)
- Arrest Warrant Issued Against You in Singapore: What to Do
- Police Arrest Procedure in Singapore
- Arrestable and Non-Arrestable Offences in Singapore
- What Should You Do If You Witness a Crime in Singapore?
- Can the Public Make a Citizen's Arrest in Singapore?
- What to Do If You’re Being Investigated for a Criminal Offence in Singapore
- "Right to Remain Silent" to Singapore Police: Does It Exist?
- Police Custody in Singapore: What You Should Know
- Search Warrant: The Issuance and Execution of It in Singapore
- Penalties for Lying to the Authorities in Singapore
- Can You Say No to a Lie Detector Test in Singapore? And Other FAQs
- Surrender of Passport to the Police and How to Get It Back
- Extradition: What If I Flee After Committing Crime in Singapore
- Making Objections at Trial in the Singapore Courts
- When is a Witness Testimony Unreliable in Singapore?
- Burden of Proof in Criminal and Civil Cases in Singapore
- Falsely Accused of a Crime in Singapore: Your Next Steps
- What is Acquittal & How Can One Be Acquitted in Singapore?
- Using the Defence of Diminished Responsibility in Singapore
- Death of a Party in a Legal Case in Singapore: What Happens?
- The "Unusually Convincing" Test in "He Said, She Said" Cases
- How to Adjourn or Postpone a Criminal Court Hearing
- TIC: Guide to Charges Taken Into Consideration in Singapore
- Can I Use the Defence of Intoxication in Singapore?
- When Can I Raise the Defence of Provocation in Singapore?
- Can I Represent Myself in a Criminal Court Case in Singapore and How?
- Claiming Trial as an Accused
- Pleading Guilty in Singapore: Consequences & Withdrawal of Plea
- The Defence of Unsound Mind in Singapore: What is It?
- Gag Orders in Singapore: Whose Identity Can be Protected?
- Mitigation Plea: How to Plead for Leniency in Court in Singapore
- Recidivism: What Happens If You Reoffend in Singapore?
- Guide to Filing a Criminal Appeal in Singapore
- Criminal Motion: What is It and How to File One in Singapore
- Guide to Filing a Criminal Revision in Singapore
- Presidential Clemency in Singapore
- Repatriation or Deportation from Singapore: How Does It Work?
- Criminal Records in Singapore
- Visiting a Loved One in Prison or On Death Row in Singapore
- Getting Parole (Early Prison Release) in Singapore
- Fined for an Offence: What to Do If I Can't Afford to Pay Them?
- How Long Is Life Imprisonment in Singapore? And Other FAQs
- Corrective Training and Its Consequences in Singapore
- Consequences of Receiving a Stern Warning in Singapore
- Probation: Eligibility and Whether It Leaves a Criminal Record
- How Can Adult Offenders Get Probation in Singapore?
- Reformative Training in Singapore: When Will It be Ordered?
- Are You Eligible for a Mandatory Treatment Order (MTO)?
- Caning in Singapore: Judicial, School & Parental Corporal Punishment
- 7 Detention Orders in Singapore: When Will They be Ordered?
- Day Reporting Order: Eligibility and Offender's Obligations
- Ragging and Bullying: Their Penalties and What Victims Can Do
- Laws Protecting Informers/Whistleblowers in Singapore
- Counterfeit Medicine/Health Products: Redress for Victims in Singapore
- Breach of Protection Orders: What Can Victims Do?
- Using Your Right to Self-Defence When Attacked in Singapore
- Compensation for Crime Victims in Singapore: How to Obtain
- Rape Laws in Singapore and How Offenders Can Be Punished
- Sexual Misconduct in Singapore: Offences and What Victims Can Do
- Falsely Accused of Rape in Singapore: What to Do
- Incest and Family Sexual Abuse: Penalties and Victim Protection
- How are Sexual Offenders with Special Needs Penalised?
- Cybersexual Crimes in Singapore and Their Penalties
- Legal Age for Sex in Singapore and Common Sexual Offences
- Consent in Sexual Offences in Singapore and What Victims Can Do
- Accused of Molest: Outrage of Modesty in Singapore
- What Can Victims of Sexual Harassment in Singapore Do?
- What is the Law on Sexting in Singapore?
- Revenge Porn: What If Your Nudes are Leaked in Singapore?
- Crime of Voyeurism in Singapore (Penalties and Defences)
- Date Rape: What to Do If Your Drink Has Been Unlawfully Spiked?
- STDs: Can I Go to the Police If a Partner Infected Me in Singapore?
- Alcohol Breathalyser Test in Singapore: Can You Refuse it?
- Are Sex Toys and Sex Dolls Legal in Singapore?
- Singapore's Legal Smoking Age & Common Smoking Offences
- Is Vaping Illegal in Singapore?
- Legal Drinking Age and Drinking-Related Laws in Singapore
- Is Watching, Downloading or Filming Porn Illegal in Singapore?
- Child Pornography in Singapore: Offences and Penalties
- Laws on Procuring Sex Workers & Sexual Services in Singapore
- Singapore's Drug Laws: Possession, Consumption and Trafficking
- Gambling Legally (at Home, in Public or Online) in Singapore
- The Offence of Human Trafficking in Singapore and Its Penalties
- Penalties For Buying Stolen Goods in Singapore
- Penalties for Committing Theft in Singapore
- Committing Robbery in Singapore: What are the Penalties?
- Penalties for Dishonest Misappropriation of Property in Singapore
- Vandalism Laws: Penalties for Damaging Property in Singapore
- Criminal Trespass in Singapore: What Happens If You’re Caught?
- Penalties for Littering and Killer Litter Offences in Singapore
- What is a POFMA Correction Direction and How to Appeal
- Penalties for Cheating/Scamming and What Victims Can Do
- Penalties for Impersonating Someone and Victim Redress
- Singapore Fake News Laws: Guide to POFMA (Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act)
- Laws and Penalties for Doxxing in Singapore (With Examples)
- Tax Evasion in Singapore: Penalties and Examples
- Criminal Breach of Trust (CBT) in Singapore: What is It?
- All You Need to Know About Corruption in Singapore
- Anti-Money Laundering Laws and You
- 5 Things You Need to Know about Insider Trading
- Dishonest Assistance and Knowing Receipt: The Case of David Rasif
- Charged with a Traffic Offence in Singapore: What to Do
- DUI: Here are the Penalties for Drink-Driving in Singapore
- What Happens If You’re Caught Speeding in Singapore?
- Road Rage: What is It and How are Offenders Sentenced in Singapore
- Penalties for Dangerous Driving for Singapore Drivers
- Fatal Traffic Accidents: Are Drivers Always Punished?
- Guide to E-Scooter and PMD Laws for Singapore Riders
- Is it Legal for Drivers to Carpool in Singapore?
- Radicalisation and Terror Attack-Related Penalties in Singapore
- Causing a Public Nuisance in Singapore: What are the Penalties?
- Causing Public Alarm in Singapore: Examples & Penalties
- Public Assemblies and Processions in Singapore
- Misbehaving in Public: 5 Things You Need to Know
- Racial Enmity: Sections 298 and 298A Penal Code Explained
- Religious Cults in Singapore: Are they Illegal? Penalties & More
- Penalties for Financing Terrorist Operations in Singapore
- Penalties for Abetting Minors or Committing Crimes Against Them
- Misusing the Singapore Flag and Other National Symbols
- Here are the Penalties for Committing Forgery in Singapore
- Arson and Fire-Related Offences and Their Penalties in Singapore
- Offences Against the Dead and What Family Members Can Do
- Laws on Prohibited, Replica and Self-Defence Weapons
- Penalties for Attempting to Commit a Crime in Singapore
- Penalties for Assaulting a Person in Singapore
- Expats Charged With Offences in Singapore: What to Expect
- What are the Penalties for Hiring Phantom Workers in Singapore?
- What Are Ponzi Schemes? Are They Illegal in Singapore?
- Modification of Cars, Motorcycles, Etc: Is It Legal in Singapore?
- Penalties for Illegal Immigration and Overstaying in Singapore
- Criminal Intimidation: Penalties for Making Threats in Singapore