Dissolution of partnerships in Singapore
When individuals decide to engage in a business partnership, they usually envision the partnership to work for the long term. Unfortunately, things do not always go as planned and sometimes parties come to the point of choosing to end the partnership.
There are two stages to ending a partnership, namely, dissolution followed by winding up. Preliminarily, a partnership is only terminated after the winding up process. This distinction is significant as partners still owe each other fiduciary duties prior to termination. In other words, partners would still owe each other fiduciary duties after dissolution and during the winding up process. Common fiduciary duties include the duty to disclose all relevant information and accounts between partners, a duty not to misrepresent to other partners, a duty to account to the firm for any secret benefit one obtains from his position in the partnership and a duty to not compete with the partnership.
Dissolution can arise (a) automatically when certain terminating events occur or (b) through an application to court. A partnership may also be dissolved by fraud or misrepresentation.
A. Terminating events
A partnership is automatically dissolved upon the occurrence of one of the following terminating events.
(1) By expiration or notice
Where the duration of the partnership is not a fixed term, it can be dissolved upon a partner giving notice. Partners intending to do so need to verify that there are no other contrary agreements between the parties. There is generally no specific form of notice. If the partnership was originally constituted by deed, a written notice signed by the partner initiating it would suffice. Notice of dissolution may be express or implied through the conduct of the partners. For example, three partners informing another that the business was converted into a limited company, which had already been formed without her knowledge, is tantamount to giving notice.
If a partnership is dissolved by notice, it is dissolved as of the date mentioned in the notice. Where no date is stated, it is dissolved from the date of the communication of the notice.
In contrast, a partnership established for a fixed duration expires at the end of its term, subject to any contrary agreement between the partners. Similarly, a partnership entered into for a specific venture expires at the end of that venture subject to contrary agreements.
(2) By death or bankruptcy of partner
If any partner dies or becomes bankrupt, the partnership is automatically dissolved unless parties agreed otherwise in their contract. For example, the agreement may include a term providing for the continuation of the business even after the death of a partner.
(3) Dissolution by charge
Where a partner allows his partnership interest to be charged for his personal debt, the partnership may be dissolved at the option of the other partners.
A partnership is dissolved by the occurrence of any event which makes it unlawful for the continuation of the business of the firm, or for the members of the firm to engage in a partnership. A partnership to conduct an illegal business would be dissolved from the outset. Notably, the partners cannot enter into an agreement to continue their business notwithstanding its illegality. For example, a partnership is dissolved where one partner fails to obtain the necessary licences from the relevant authorities.
B. Dissolution by court order
One may apply to the court for the dissolution of the partnership in the following circumstances.
(1) Mental or physical incapacity
Mental incapacity in the form of permanent unsoundness of mind can be one reason for the court to dissolve a partnership. However, the court may not exercise its discretion to dissolve the partnership where a partner’s mental incapacity is only partial or temporary.
The court may also order dissolution where a partner has become physically incapacitated and is permanently incapable of performing his obligations under the partnership contract. However, the court will not dissolve the partnership where the incapacitated partner is recovering or showing signs of improvement.
(2) Prejudicial conduct by a partner
Where one partner is guilty of conduct which prejudices the partnership’s business, the court may order a dissolution. An example is when a partner commits a serious breach of trust like embezzlement or if one partner behaves violently towards another.
Criminal conduct which hurts the partnership’s professional standing can also constitute prejudicial conduct. For example, a partner who was convicted of cheating a third party was held to have prejudiced the partnership’s business.
(3) Wilful breach of partnership agreement
The court may dissolve a partnership if a partner wilfully or persistently breaches the partnership agreement. The court will consider the frequency and seriousness of the breach when deciding how to intervene. The court will dissolve the partnership if the breaches cause mistrust between partners and undermine the fiduciary relationship between them, such as if one partner makes many irregular entries into the partnership’s accounts. Another example of a wilful breach is where a partner is excluded from management participation.
(4) Conduct that makes continuation of the business impracticable
The court may order a dissolution when the conduct of a partner makes the continuation of the partnership impractical. This can occur where there is an irreparable breakdown in relations between the partners such that mutual confidence is undermined. However, the court will refrain from intervening in trivial and petty squabbles among partners.
(5) Loss-making business
Where the continuation of the business undertaken by the partnership will result only in a loss, the court may order a dissolution. In such situations, the practical impossibility of generating profits must be proven. It is insufficient that the partnership is merely going through a loss-making period. The court will not grant a dissolution where it can be established that the losses incurred were due to a temporary situation that can be overcome.
(6) Just and equitable grounds
The court may dissolve the partnership where it is just and equitable to do so. Typically, this applies where the relationship between the partners has broken down so irretrievably that it would be pointless to carry on the partnership. One example is when partners have such an acrimonious relationship that they refuse to meet each other which results in a complete management deadlock.
C. Fraud or misrepresentation
As a matter of general contract law, a partnership also can be dissolved where there is fraud or misrepresentation by a partner. The party entitled to rescind the partnership contract is entitled to be indemnified against the party guilty of fraud or misrepresentation against all the debts and liability of the partnership.
II. Winding up
A partnership does not cease to exist immediately upon its dissolution. Winding up commences after dissolution, where all partnership affairs will be settled. This includes the completion of unfinished transactions, payments to creditors, liquidation of assets and the distribution of proceeds to various partners. The partnership is only terminated after all partnership matters have been fully wound up.
Before the partnership is terminated and during the winding up process, each partner still has the authority to bind the partnership. However, this authority is limited only to what is deemed necessary for the winding up process and to complete unfinished transactions. It must be noted that the partner who has become bankrupt has no authority to bind the firm.
Dealing with the possibility of the dissolution of a partnership may be complex, more so if it involves disputing parties. Our experienced lawyers would be able to guide you through the process and find practical recommendations that can solve the situation amicably for all parties involved.
- What are Annual General Meetings (AGMs) in Singapore?
- Anti-Money Laundering Regulations and Your Business: What You Need to Know
- Price-Fixing, Bid-Rigging and Other Anti-Competitive Practices to Avoid
- Dividend Payments Guide for Singapore Business Owners
- Company Audits in Singapore: Requirements and Exemptions
- Guide to Transferring Shares in a Singapore Private Company
- How to Hold Extraordinary General Meetings (EGMs) in Singapore
- How to Issue Shares in a Singapore Private Company
- How to Reduce the Share Capital of Your Singapore Company
- Legally Conducting Lucky Draws for Singapore Businesses
- Dormant Companies and Their Filing Obligations in Singapore
- How to Hold a Board Meeting in Singapore
- Can Directors be Liable for Company Debts in Singapore?
- Paid-Up Capital in Singapore: A Complete Guide (Is $1 Enough?)
- Restaurant Inspection and Food Safety Rules in Singapore
- Preparing a Register of Shareholders for a Singapore Company
- Essential Regulatory Compliance Guide for Singapore Companies
- Finding a Suitable Corporate Secretarial Firm in Singapore
- Oppression of Minority Shareholders
- Process Agents in Singapore
- Shadow Directors: Who are They and What Duties Do They Owe to the Company?
- Guide to Directors' Remuneration in Singapore
- 3 Types of Insurance Every Singapore Business Needs
- How to Change the Name of Your Singapore Company
- How to Remove a Director from a Company in Singapore
- Appointing Company Directors in Singapore: Eligibility, Process etc.
- Company Loans to Directors/Shareholders (& Vice Versa) in Singapore
- Share Transmission: What Happens If a Shareholder Dies in Singapore?
- Business Will: How to Pass on Your Business to Your Successors in Singapore
- Shareholder Rights in Singapore Private Companies
- Removal and Resignation of Company Auditor in Singapore
- Shareholder Roles and Obligations in Singapore Companies
- Creating and Registering Charges in Singapore: Guide for Companies
- How to Commence a Derivative Action on Behalf of a Company in Singapore
- Managing Director vs CEO in Singapore: Roles and Obligations
- Appointing an Authorised Representative for Foreign Companies in Singapore
- Business Partnership Disputes in Singapore: How to Resolve
- Guide to Effective Business Continuity Planning in Singapore
- Buy-Sell Agreements: How to Write & Fund Them in Singapore
- Appointing a Company Secretary: Roles and Responsibilities
- Directors' Duties in Singapore
- Company Constitutions in Singapore and How to Draft One
- Company Memorandum and Articles of Association
- Minutes of Company Meeting in Singapore: How to Record
- Guide to Filing Financial Statements for Singapore Business Owners
- Filing Annual Returns For Your Business
- Memorandum of Understanding (MOU): Does Your Business Need One?
- Company Resolutions: What are They?
- Board Resolutions in Singapore
- Guide and Template for Notice of Extraordinary General Meeting
- How to Set Up a Register of Controllers
- How to Set Up a Register of Nominee Directors
- Your Guide to Resolutions Passed at a First Directors’ Meeting
- Your Guide to Resolutions to Appoint a Company Secretary
- Your Guide to Resolutions for Authority to Act on a Share Purchase and Subscription Agreement
- Your Guide to Shareholders’ Resolutions for Share Allotments
- Your Guide to Resolution for Authorisation of Investment in the Shares of Another Company
- Your Guide to Share Certificates in Singapore: Usage and How to Prepare
- Your Guide to Resolution for Transfer of Shares
- Your Guide to Resolution for Change of Registered Address
- Your Guide to Board Resolution for Approval/Allotment of Shares
- Your Guide to Resolutions to Increase a Company's Share Capital
- What is Withholding Tax and When to Pay It in Singapore
- Singapore Influencers: Here's How to Calculate Your Income Tax
- Corporate Tax in Singapore: How to Pay, Tax Rate, Exemptions
- When to Register for GST, How and Responsibilities after Registration
- Start-Up Tax Exemption Guide for New Singapore Companies
- Tax Investigation of Tax-Evading Business Owners in Singapore
- Small Business Accounting Services in Singapore
- Essential PDPA Compliance Guide for Singapore Businesses
- Cloud Storage of Personal Data: Your Business’ Data Protection Obligations
- How Can Companies Dispose of Documents Containing Personal Data?
- Here's a 7-Step Plan for Companies to Prevent Unauthorised Disclosure When Processing and Sending Personal Data
- Appointing a Data Protection Officer For Your Business: All You Need to Know
- Summary: Your Organisation's 9 Main PDPA Obligations
- Check the Do-Not-Call Registry Before Marketing to Singapore Phone Numbers
- GDPR Compliance in Singapore: Is it Required and How to Comply
- Is It Legal for Businesses to Ask for Your NRIC in Singapore?
- PDPA Consent Requirements: How Can Your Business Comply?
- Legal Options If Employees Breach Confidentiality in Singapore
- Insolvency: Claw-back of Assets from Unfair Preference and Undervalued Transactions
- Striking Off a Company
- What Should a Creditor Do When a Company Becomes Insolvent?
- Dissolution of partnerships in Singapore
- Validation of Payments Made by Companies Being Wound Up
- Can a Company that Struck Itself Off the Register Later Apply to Restore Itself?
- Closing Your Singapore Business: What You Need to Settle
- How to File a Proof of Debt against a Company in Liquidation
- Winding Up a Company