Racial Enmity: Sections 298 and 298A Penal Code Explained
Sections 298 and 298A of the Penal Code refer to activity or expression which might potentially offend a group of people on account of their race and/or religion.
Section 298 was inherited by Singapore from the Indian Penal Code. On the other hand, the offence in Section 298A was created pursuant to amendments to the Penal Code in 2007.
Prior to 2007, prosecutions for those kinds of activities and expressions were undertaken pursuant to the Sedition Act, but the scope of that offence and the elements required to prove it were a little different.
Section 298 of the Penal Code: Uttering Words, etc. to Wound Religious or Racial Feelings
A charge under section 298 of the Penal Code is a charge for uttering words, etc., with deliberate intent to wound the religious or racial feelings of any person.
To be found guilty of this offence:
- You must have expressed a thought in some way, whether verbally, by making some noise, by making some gesture or by using some prop;
- In expressing that thought, your intention must have been to hurt the “religious or racial feelings” of a person; and
- That person must have actually seen or heard your expression of that thought.
The “person” in this context can be thought of as just people generally, rather than a specific person. No one actually needs to have felt offended or had their “religious or racial feelings” actually hurt for you to be found guilty. It is sufficient that you merely intended to hurt those feelings.
In proving that intention, the content of the expression of your thought is often sufficient evidence in itself, i.e. that the expression is so hurtful that you must surely have intended to hurt someone’s “religious or racial feelings”.
“Religious or racial feelings” tend to be interpreted broadly by courts as being impinged upon whenever any potentially offensive or insulting thought is publicly expressed, if the thought has something to do with race, racism, race relations or religion.
Section 298A of the Penal Code: Promoting Racial or Religious Enmity
Section 298A of the Penal Code, on the other hand, is a charge for promoting enmity between different groups on grounds of religion or race or doing acts prejudicial to maintenance of harmony.
To be found guilty of an offence under section 298A:
- You must have expressed a thought in some way, whether verbally, in writing, by making some gesture or by using signs;
- That expression must promote, or try to promote, on grounds of religion or race, disharmony or feelings of enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious or racial groups; and
- You must know that your expression or attempted expression of that thought is likely to promote those things.
- You must have committed an act which you know might disturb harmony between different religious or racial groups; and
- That act must disturb, or be likely to disturb, the public tranquility.
The offence of section 298A is divided into two possible prohibited activities, the first being the expression of offending thoughts and the second being the commission of an offending act.
With regard to the first, namely expression of offending thoughts, your knowledge of the effect of your expression here is a lower bar than the intention required in section 298. For the purposes of finding someone guilty of expressing such offending thoughts.
It is usually sufficient for the prosecution to prove that the accused knew that any reasonable person would have known that such an expression would promote disharmony, enmity, hatred etc.
The societal interests being protected here (harmony, public tranquility, etc.) are not defined in the legislation.Vague concepts such as harmony do not lend themselves easily to legal definitions and do not appear often in legislation.
They are thought to be intentionally vague so as to allow courts a wide discretion in determining from all the relevant facts, what kind of activity is likely to cause disharmony, enmity, hatred, etc.
Where is the Line Between Legal and Illegal Acts and Speech?
Because of the use of such vague language, any expression or act that has anything to do with a racial or religious matter that might potentially offend anyone of a particular race and/or religion, or groups of races and/or religions, is at risk of resulting in a conviction under sections 298 or 298A.
However, public discussion of sometimes delicate issues relating to race and religion does occur in Singapore from time to time without charges being brought against the speakers. Hence, clearly not all expressions related to these issues might be off-limits.
The challenge is in determining what expression will be tolerated by law enforcement or the Attorney General’s Chambers (AGC), what will be tolerated by the courts, and what to make of the grey area in between.
It is instructive in this regard to examine the facts of cases that resulted in conviction and sentencing and those that did not result in any charges being brought.
Cases Where No Charges Under Sections 298 or 298A were Brought
In 2013, an employee of a labour union, Ms Amy Cheong, published some hurtful remarks online regarding Malay people. In these remarks, she criticised Malay wedding traditions as allegedly being a source of nuisance.
She also claimed that the Malay custom of holding weddings under blocks of flats was inconsiderate to residents, and merely a product of their poverty as they could not afford to rent a hotel space. In addition, she sought to draw a link between this Malay custom and what she claimed were higher divorce rates amongst Malay couples.
Whilst this appears on its face to be a communication made with the intention of wounding the racial feelings of Malay people, no charges were brought against Ms Cheong. Instead, a stern warning was issued.
Clearly, Ms Cheong’s remarks were troubling to the AGC but as no charges were brought, the courts’ analysis of whether the elements of an offence under section 298 had been made out never took place. Ultimately, Ms Cheong still paid a price for her remarks as her employment was terminated, and she was repatriated to Australia.
In 2018, writer and doctoral student Ms Sangeetha Thanapal, who is credited with coining the term “Chinese privilege”, published an article in Australia criticising the film, Crazy Rich Asians, which was set in Singapore, for its failure to feature racial minorities.
Ms Sangeetha went on to argue that this failure supported a narrative of Chinese racial and cultural dominance in Singapore that had become institutionalised. She also argued that such a narrative was supported by certain government policies that allegedly sought to shift Singapore’s racial demographics to increase the Chinese population.
In addition, she claimed that casual racism by Chinese people in Singapore against brown people was common.
The following year, Ms Sangeetha was detained by police on a visit to Singapore but ultimately no charges were brought against her. Instead, she was issued with a stern warning. The issue of whether Ms Sangeetha’s words were actually made with the intention of wounding the racial feelings of Chinese people was hotly debated at the time.
Ms Sangeetha claimed that her article was merely a response to the racial feelings of brown people being hurt, where she intended to drawattention to the racial discrimination suffered by brown people.
As no charges were brought, we will never know whether the courts would have found that Ms Sangeetha’s publication met the elements of a charge under section 298 or 298A. As Ms Sangeetha published her article in Australia, the issue of whether sections 298 or 298A have extraterritorial effect, and therefore could apply overseas, also remains unresolved.
Mr Dennis Chew brownface advertisement, and response by Preeti & Subhas Nair
In 2019, a government-linked company released an advertisement featuring a Chinese actor, Mr Dennis Chew, who was depicted in the advertisement wearing brownface in order to play the roles of an Indian and Malay character, respectively.
After it aired, siblings Preeti Nair and Subhas Nair released a rap video in which they criticised the advertisement.The Nair siblings were offended by this advertisement and composed a rap about the advertisement being racist and hurting the racial feelings of brown people. The rap lyrics included expletives.
No law enforcement investigation was made, nor were charges brought, against Mr Chew or the government-linked company which produced the advertisement. The Infocomm Media Development Authority (IMDA) “assessed” the advertisement and concluded that it did not breach its Internet Code of Practice.
However, IMDA nevertheless claimed it had issued a “stern reminder” to the makers of the advertisement that it was important to “pay attention to racial and religious sensitivities.”
No charges were brought against the Nair siblings either, but they were forced to remove their video from the internet. They were also issued with a 24-month conditional warning, meaning that charges may yet be brought for this incident, should they be accused of committing any further offences in the subsequent 24 months.
As of the date of writing, this has not yet occurred so it is unclear whether a court would find that the Nair siblings had the intention of wounding the racial feelings of Chinese people, as AGC alleged, or whether all the elements of an offence under sections 298 or 298A could be made out.
Given how broadly the language of sections 298 and 298A is drafted, it is entirely possible that the courts might view this kind of expression as falling foul of that broad language. However, we will have to wait for charges to be brought in a case like this before that hypothesis can be tested.
Cases Resulting in Convictions Under Sections 298 and 298A
Prior to the inception of section 298A, prosecutions for cases of this nature were usually brought pursuant to the Sedition Act. As there are few convictions for offences pursuant to sections 298 and 298A, analogous cases prosecuted under the Sedition Act are included below.
The cases resulting in actual convictions tend to be more clearly, egregiously and intentionally offensive than the examples above.
Gan Huai Shi
In 2005, Mr Gan Huai Shi published a blog post entitled “The Second Holocaust”, in which he advocated for a genocide of the Malay race. He was charged under the Sedition Act, convicted and sentenced to 24 months of supervised probation.
Clearly, inciting violence on the basis of race falls foul of both the Sedition Act and section 298A of the Penal Code, as well as several other provisions.
In 2005, Mr Benjamin Koh published remarks and images online, including a parody of Singapore’s halal logo next to a pig’s head, and directed certain expletives at the Malay-Muslim community, mocked their customs and beliefs and compared Islam to Satanism. Mr Koh pleaded guilty to offences under the Sedition Act and was sentenced to 1 month’s imprisonment.
In 2005, Mr Nicholas Lim pleaded guilty to a charge under the Sedition Act of doing an act with a seditious tendency to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different classes of the Singapore population by posting anti-Muslim remarks online.
The court decision did not elaborate further on the nature or content of those remarks, but sentenced him to 1 day’s imprisonment and the maximum $5,000 fine.
Ong Kian Cheong and Dorothy Chen Hien Leng
In 2009, evangelical Christians Mr Ong Kian Cheong and Ms Dorothy Chen Hien Leng were convicted of offences under the Sedition Act for sending offensive religious literature to people in Singapore.
The purpose of the literature was to persuade the reader to convert to Protestant Christianity. It did this by undermining the validity of other religions, specifically Islam and Catholicism.
The manner in which these publications undermined other religions offended members of those religions. Accordingly, Mr Ong and Ms Chen were found after a trial to have done an act with a seditious tendency to promote feelings of ill will and hostility between different classes of the Singapore population, namely between Protestants and Muslims, and between Protestants and Catholics.
They were both sentenced to 8 weeks’ imprisonment.
In 2015, video blogger and former child actor Mr Amos Yee was convicted under section 298 of wounding the religious feelings of Christians for a video he published of himself in which he compared the values of Christianity, Christians and Jesus Christ unfavourably to those of the late Mr Lee Kuan Yew, former Prime Minister of Singapore.
In particular, he described Jesus Christ, a central figure in the Christian religion, as being “power hungry”, “malicious” and “deceptive”, and criticised Christians for lacking sufficient knowledge of the contents of the Bible.
He was sentenced to 3 weeks’ imprisonment for that offence.
Nalla Mohamed Abdul Jameel Abdul Malik
In 2017, Muslim imam Mr Nalla Mohamed Abdul Jameel Abdul Malik, was convicted under section 298A for promoting enmity between different religious groups when he publicly prayed out loud in Arabic in his mosque for “victory over Jews and Christians”.
The Ministry of Home Affairs stated that he had not been deliberately malicious. Nevertheless, he was convicted under section 298A, fined $4,000 and deported to India.
You can be sentenced to anywhere up to 3 years in prison and/or an unlimited fine if you are convicted of an offence under either section 298 or 298A of the Penal Code.
However, as observed above, stern or conditional warnings are the most common outcome of most investigations into matters of this nature.
For cases that do result in charges being brought under sections 298 or 298A, as we have seen above, substantial fines ($4,000-5,000) and/or short imprisonment terms (3-8 weeks) are the most common outcome. For offenders who are young enough and eligible for probation, a lengthy term of supervised probation is also a possible outcome.
Those possible sentences represent a rather broad spectrum of possible outcomes for offenders so a variety of sentencing factors are relevant to the ultimate sentence in any given case. Examples of relevant sentencing factors include:
Mitigating factors (that may result in a lower sentence):
- Retraction and apology, if any
- Undertaking to not reoffend
- Willingness to undergo counselling
- No previous convictions
- Plea of guilt
- Cooperation with investigation
Aggravating factors (that may result in a harsher sentence):
- Existing criminal record
- Whether there are other charges
- Lack of remorse
- Continuing offending behaviour
- Extremely insulting nature of offending acts/expression
- Extensive planning of offending acts/expression
Are Offences Under Section 298 and 298A Arrestable?
Neither of these offences are arrestable offences. This means that the police must obtain an arrest warrant from the court before they can arrest the alleged offender.
So for example, if you made a remark regarding race relations that hurt the racial feelings of a person of a particular race, the police do not have the authority to arrest you unless they have a warrant for your arrest.
Will Convictions Under Sections 298 and 298A Result in a Criminal Record?
If you are convicted of an offence under section 298, it will not result in a criminal record as it is not a registrable offence under the Registration of Criminals Act.
On the other hand, if you are convicted of an offence under section 298A, you may or may not have a criminal record. This depends on whether the Commissioner of Police chooses to exercise his discretion to not register your criminal record, among other factors.
Even if your criminal record under section 298A has been registered, you might still have the opportunity to have your criminal record treated as spent. This simply means that your record will be wiped clean. To qualify for having your record spent, you must first meet the following criteria:
- If you were given a prison sentence, your imprisonment term must have been not more than 3 months;
- If you were given a fine, the fine imposed on you must have been not more than $2,000;
- You must not have any other conviction on your criminal record; and
- You must not have any previous spent record on the register.
If you meet these criteria, you then have to remain crime-free for at least 5 consecutive years, starting from the date of your release from prison, or from the date that your sentence was passed if you were given a fine. Once you accomplish this, your record will be spent automatically, and you will be able to legally declare that you do not have a criminal record.
What to Do If You’re Being Investigated For a Charge Under Sections 298 or 298A
If you are being investigated for a possible offence of this nature, it is highly advisable to seek legal advice. If charges are brought against you, it is essential that you engage legal counsel.
Whilst in theory, it is possible to represent yourself, you are highly advised to engage a criminal lawyer instead. A lawyer can assist to negotiate plea bargains that include charge reductions or agreement on the kind of sentences that will be requested.
If there is a basis to contest the charges, a lawyer is necessary in order to be able to effectively do so. If your lawyer advises against contesting your charges, but you feel that you have a valid defence, seek a second opinion from another lawyer before deciding whether or not to plead guilty.
- Your Right to a Lawyer After Being Arrested in Singapore
- What to Do If Your Loved One is Under Police Investigation
- How to Write a Letter of Representation to AGC in Singapore
- What is Entrapment and is It Legal in Singapore?
- What Happens When You Voluntarily Surrender to the Police
- Juvenile Crime: What If Your Child is Arrested in Singapore?
- Police Investigation Process for Crimes in Singapore (4 Steps)
- Arrest Warrant Issued Against You in Singapore: What to Do
- Police Arrest Procedure in Singapore
- Arrestable and Non-Arrestable Offences in Singapore
- What Should You Do If You Witness a Crime in Singapore?
- Can the Public Make a Citizen's Arrest in Singapore?
- What to Do If You’re Being Investigated for a Criminal Offence in Singapore
- "Right to Remain Silent" to Singapore Police: Does It Exist?
- Police Custody in Singapore: What You Should Know
- Search Warrant: The Issuance and Execution of It in Singapore
- Penalties for Lying to the Authorities in Singapore
- Can You Say No to a Lie Detector Test in Singapore? And Other FAQs
- Surrender of Passport to the Police and How to Get It Back
- Extradition: What If I Flee After Committing Crime in Singapore
- Making Objections at Trial in the Singapore Courts
- When is a Witness Testimony Unreliable in Singapore?
- Burden of Proof in Criminal and Civil Cases in Singapore
- Falsely Accused of a Crime in Singapore: Your Next Steps
- What is Acquittal & How Can One Be Acquitted in Singapore?
- Using the Defence of Diminished Responsibility in Singapore
- Death of a Party in a Legal Case in Singapore: What Happens?
- The "Unusually Convincing" Test in "He Said, She Said" Cases
- How to Adjourn or Postpone a Criminal Court Hearing
- TIC: Guide to Charges Taken Into Consideration in Singapore
- Can I Use the Defence of Intoxication in Singapore?
- When Can I Raise the Defence of Provocation in Singapore?
- Can I Represent Myself in a Criminal Court Case in Singapore and How?
- Claiming Trial as an Accused
- Pleading Guilty in Singapore: Consequences & Withdrawal of Plea
- The Defence of Unsound Mind in Singapore: What is It?
- Gag Orders in Singapore: Whose Identity Can be Protected?
- Mitigation Plea: How to Plead for Leniency in Court in Singapore
- Recidivism: What Happens If You Reoffend in Singapore?
- Guide to Filing a Criminal Appeal in Singapore
- Criminal Motion: What is It and How to File One in Singapore
- Guide to Filing a Criminal Revision in Singapore
- Presidential Clemency in Singapore
- Repatriation or Deportation from Singapore: How Does It Work?
- Criminal Records in Singapore
- Visiting a Loved One in Prison or On Death Row in Singapore
- Getting Parole (Early Prison Release) in Singapore
- Fined for an Offence: What to Do If I Can't Afford to Pay Them?
- How Long Is Life Imprisonment in Singapore? And Other FAQs
- Corrective Training and Its Consequences in Singapore
- Consequences of Receiving a Stern Warning in Singapore
- Probation: Eligibility and Whether It Leaves a Criminal Record
- How Can Adult Offenders Get Probation in Singapore?
- Reformative Training in Singapore: When Will It be Ordered?
- Are You Eligible for a Mandatory Treatment Order (MTO)?
- Caning in Singapore: Judicial, School & Parental Corporal Punishment
- 7 Detention Orders in Singapore: When Will They be Ordered?
- Day Reporting Order: Eligibility and Offender's Obligations
- Ragging and Bullying: Their Penalties and What Victims Can Do
- Laws Protecting Informers/Whistleblowers in Singapore
- Counterfeit Medicine/Health Products: Redress for Victims in Singapore
- Breach of Protection Orders: What Can Victims Do?
- Using Your Right to Self-Defence When Attacked in Singapore
- Compensation for Crime Victims in Singapore: How to Obtain
- Rape Laws in Singapore and How Offenders Can Be Punished
- Sexual Misconduct in Singapore: Offences and What Victims Can Do
- Falsely Accused of Rape in Singapore: What to Do
- Incest and Family Sexual Abuse: Penalties and Victim Protection
- How are Sexual Offenders with Special Needs Penalised?
- Cybersexual Crimes in Singapore and Their Penalties
- Legal Age for Sex in Singapore and Common Sexual Offences
- Consent in Sexual Offences in Singapore and What Victims Can Do
- Accused of Molest: Outrage of Modesty in Singapore
- What Can Victims of Sexual Harassment in Singapore Do?
- What is the Law on Sexting in Singapore?
- Revenge Porn: What If Your Nudes are Leaked in Singapore?
- Crime of Voyeurism in Singapore (Penalties and Defences)
- Date Rape: What to Do If Your Drink Has Been Unlawfully Spiked?
- STDs: Can I Go to the Police If a Partner Infected Me in Singapore?
- Alcohol Breathalyser Test in Singapore: Can You Refuse it?
- Singapore's Legal Smoking Age & Common Smoking Offences
- Is Vaping Illegal in Singapore?
- Legal Drinking Age and Drinking-Related Laws in Singapore
- Is Watching, Downloading or Filming Porn Illegal in Singapore?
- Child Pornography in Singapore: Offences and Penalties
- Laws on Procuring Sex Workers & Sexual Services in Singapore
- Singapore's Drug Laws: Possession, Consumption and Trafficking
- Gambling Legally (at Home, in Public or Online) in Singapore
- The Offence of Human Trafficking in Singapore and Its Penalties
- Penalties for Committing Theft in Singapore
- Committing Robbery in Singapore: What are the Penalties?
- Penalties for Dishonest Misappropriation of Property in Singapore
- Vandalism Laws: Penalties for Damaging Property in Singapore
- Criminal Trespass in Singapore: What Happens If You’re Caught?
- Penalties for Littering and Killer Litter Offences in Singapore
- What is a POFMA Correction Direction and How to Appeal
- Penalties for Cheating/Scamming and What Victims Can Do
- Penalties for Impersonating Someone and Victim Redress
- Singapore Fake News Laws: Guide to POFMA (Protection from Online Falsehoods and Manipulation Act)
- Laws and Penalties for Doxxing in Singapore (With Examples)
- Tax Evasion in Singapore: Penalties and Examples
- Criminal Breach of Trust (CBT) in Singapore: What is It?
- All You Need to Know About Corruption in Singapore
- Anti-Money Laundering Laws and You
- 5 Things You Need to Know about Insider Trading
- Dishonest Assistance and Knowing Receipt: The Case of David Rasif
- Charged with a Traffic Offence in Singapore: What to Do
- DUI: Here are the Penalties for Drink-Driving in Singapore
- What Happens If You’re Caught Speeding in Singapore?
- Road Rage: What is It and How are Offenders Sentenced in Singapore
- Penalties for Dangerous Driving for Singapore Drivers
- Fatal Traffic Accidents: Are Drivers Always Punished?
- Guide to E-Scooter and PMD Laws for Singapore Riders
- Is it Legal for Drivers to Carpool in Singapore?
- Radicalisation and Terror Attack-Related Penalties in Singapore
- Causing a Public Nuisance in Singapore: What are the Penalties?
- Causing Public Alarm in Singapore: Examples & Penalties
- Public Assemblies and Processions in Singapore
- Misbehaving in Public: 5 Things You Need to Know
- Racial Enmity: Sections 298 and 298A Penal Code Explained
- Religious Cults in Singapore: Are they Illegal? Penalties & More
- Penalties for Financing Terrorist Operations in Singapore
- Penalties for Abetting Minors or Committing Crimes Against Them
- Here are the Penalties for Committing Forgery in Singapore
- Arson and Fire-Related Offences and Their Penalties in Singapore
- Offences Against the Dead and What Family Members Can Do
- Laws on Prohibited, Replica and Self-Defence Weapons
- Penalties for Attempting to Commit a Crime in Singapore
- Penalties for Assaulting a Person in Singapore
- Expats Charged With Offences in Singapore: What to Expect
- What are the Penalties for Hiring Phantom Workers in Singapore?
- What Are Ponzi Schemes? Are They Illegal in Singapore?
- Modification of Cars, Motorcycles, Etc: Is It Legal in Singapore?
- Penalties for Illegal Immigration and Overstaying in Singapore
- Criminal Intimidation: Penalties for Making Threats in Singapore