6 Things You Need to Know about Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration

Last updated on April 21, 2017

On 10 January 2017, the Singapore Parliament passed amendments to the Civil Law Act legalising third-party funding in international arbitration. Here are 6 things you need to know about the amendments.

1. What is third-party funding?

Third-party funding is a financing method where a party to a dispute obtains funding for its legal costs from a third-party funder who has no connection to the dispute. In exchange, the third-party funder is given a share of the proceeds if the party recovers any money after the resolution of the dispute.

2. Third-party funding was prohibited previously

In Singapore, agreements for third-party funding of disputes have always been prohibited for being a contravention of the laws of maintenance and champerty. This is manifested in two aspects – one, the common law tort of maintenance and champerty, and two, that agreements affected by maintenance or champerty are void under the law of contract for being contrary to public policy.

Maintenance is generally defined as the provision of financial assistance to a party to a dispute without taking an interest in the outcome and receiving a share of any money recovered by that party. Champerty is a subset of maintenance – it is the provision of the same assistance, but with the expectation of receiving a share of money recovered by the party (if any).

Two centuries ago, many jurisdictions outlawed these acts in order to prevent vulnerable individuals from being oppressed by wealthy funders, as well as to prevent excessive and frivolous claims. However, in the 21st century, the usefulness of these doctrines have been reconsidered in light of other safeguards against fraud and abuse that are available in legal systems today. Jurisdictions such as the United Kingdom and parts of Australia have viewed these protections as no longer necessary and have removed them. In other jurisdictions, exceptions with respect to third-party funding are being carved out. Singapore is one example of such a jurisdiction.

3. Third-party funding is now allowed for international arbitration in Singapore

Third-party funding for international arbitration became permitted in Singapore when the Parliament passed the Civil Law (Amendment) Bill 2016 on 10 January 2017. The amendment abolishes the common law tort of maintenance and champerty, as well as makes clear that a contract for third-party funding of international arbitration proceedings (along with its related court and/or mediation proceedings) will not be rendered unenforceable for being contrary to public policy or illegal by reason of it being a contract for maintenance or champerty.

In addition, a third-party funder has to satisfy the requirements of:

  • carrying on the principal business of the funding of the costs of dispute resolution proceedings;
  • it must have access to funds immediately within its control; and
  • the funds must be invested to enable the party to meet the costs of the proceedings.

4. Third-party funding is a feature in other seats of arbitration

International arbitration can be expensive, and this may deter parties with legitimate claims from initiating proceedings. This has led to an increase in business demands for financing options for dispute resolution. On the supply side, there is a growing body of well-capitalised professional third-party funders to meet this demand.

Third-party funding has become a feature in the world’s most popular seats of international arbitration – London, Paris, Geneva and Hong Kong. Singapore has now joined the list of being one of the top seats of international arbitration. Therefore, to maintain its position and continue attracting international parties to choose Singapore as their seat of arbitration, Singapore has to be cognisant of the practices of other jurisdictions and stay responsive to business needs of commercial parties. This will enable Singapore to strengthen its position as an international commercial dispute resolution hub and a key arbitration seat in the world.

5. Businesses can pursue legitimate claims through arbitration subject to certain caveats

With the framework for third-party funding in place in Singapore, businesses will be offered the additional financial advantage of being able pursue claims that they would otherwise not have due to financial constraints.

Given their objective of providing attractive returns to their investors, third-party funders are highly selective in choosing the types of claims to fund. Businesses would therefore have to provide extensive information about their cases for third-party funders to assess the likelihood of success and the ability to recover from the assets of the losing party. This may lead to substantial costs being incurred before the claim even begins, which may be wasted if the application for funding is unsuccessful.

Businesses may also have to disclose confidential or privileged information in the process of presenting their cases to third-party funders. It may thus be prudent to enter into a non-disclosure agreement with the third-party funder to prevent any inadvertent waiver of privilege.

6. Lawyers may introduce third-party funders to their clients

Changes are also made to the Legal Profession Act – solicitors are now allowed to introduce or refer third-party funders to their clients as long as they do not receive any direct financial benefit from the introduction or referral. Solicitors are also allowed to advise or act for their clients in relation to third-party funding contracts.

Amendments are also made to the Legal Profession (Professional Conduct) Rules to address problems of conflicts of interests between solicitors and third-party funders. Solicitors will be imposed with a duty to disclose the existence of any third-party funding that their clients are receiving, as well as the identity and address of any third-party funder involved.

Before Making a Claim
  1. Drafting an Enforceable Settlement Agreement in Singapore
  2. Should I Make A Police Report or Should I Sue?
  3. Differences between Criminal Law and Civil Law
  4. Should You Sue? 8 Things to Think About Before Suing
  5. How to Write a Cease and Desist Letter in Singapore
  6. Limitation Periods: What's the Deadline for Suing in Singapore?
  7. What to Do If Someone Sues Your Singapore Business
  8. Arbitration and Mediation: When They Can be Useful for Business Disputes
  9. Can I Sue a Foreigner or Foreign Company in Singapore?
  10. Mediation in Singapore
  11. Arbitration: When and How to Arbitrate Business Disputes in Singapore
  12. 6 Things You Need to Know about Third-Party Funding in International Arbitration
  13. Using Neutral Evaluation to Resolve Civil Disputes in Singapore
Making a Claim - The Beginning of a Dispute
  1. What is a Breach of Confidence and How to Prove It
  2. Victim of a Wire Fraud? Here’s What You Can Do
  3. How to File an Originating Claim in a Singapore Lawsuit
  4. How to Bring a Class-Action Lawsuit in Singapore
  5. Letters of Demand and Their Usages in Singapore
  6. Law on Writ of Summons in Singapore
  7. Received a "Without Prejudice" Letter? Here’s What It Means
  8. What if I Cannot Find the Party I Want to Sue?
  9. Making a Claim in the Small Claims Tribunals in Singapore
  10. First Meeting With Your Business Dispute Lawyer: What to Expect
  11. Negotiating a Settlement in a Business Dispute
  12. Security of Payment Act: Claiming Progress Payments for Construction Work Done
  13. Engaging a Queen’s Counsel in Singapore
The Litigation Process
  1. Can You Withdraw Your Court Case in Singapore?
  2. Wasting the Court’s Time and Resources: Legal Consequences
  3. Natural Justice Explained: Your Right to a Fair & Unbiased Hearing
  4. Civil Litigation: How to Sue in Singapore (Step-by-Step Guide)
  5. Originating Application: What It Is and How to File in Singapore
  6. Notice of Intention to Contest or Not Contest: What is It?
  7. Affidavits in Singapore: What Are They & How to Prepare One
  8. Default Judgments and Summary Judgments in Singapore
Matters relating to Witnesses and Evidence
  1. Can My Minor Child be Subpoenaed to be a Court Witness?
  2. Giving Evidence via Video Link in a Singapore Lawsuit
  3. Prima Facie: What Does It Mean and How to Establish
  4. Hearsay Evidence: Admissibility and Objection of It in Singapore
  5. Admissibility of Evidence in the Singapore Courts
  6. Subpoenaed to be a Court Witness in Singapore: What You Need to Do
  7. Who is an Expert Witness and How to Use Expert Evidence in Singapore
  8. Destroying and Tampering With Evidence in Singapore
  9. Legal DNA Test: What is It For, How It’s Conducted, Cost & More
Remedies Available for Civil Litigation
  1. Types of Injunctions in Singapore
  2. Specific Performance: Obtaining this Equitable Remedy in Singapore
  3. Judicial Review in Singapore: What is It and How to Apply
After the Lawsuit
  1. After the Lawsuit: Who Has to Pay Whom, and How Much?
  2. Enforcement of Court Judgments and Orders in Singapore
  3. How to Get an Order for Seizure and Sale to Enforce a Judgment